Biology is indeed a vast subject. It includes all living organisms (still alive or once lived) and studies related to the living organisms. Depending on the living organisms studied, the organ system studied and the type of study there can be different branches of biology. Biology is also related to other sciences and opens to broad aspect of life.
Branches of Biology depending on the Living Organisms studied
The first division of Biology can be based on the type of living organism studied. These are:
- Anthropology: Study of human beings.
- Bacteriology: Study of bacteria.
- Botany: Study of plants.
- Entomology: Study of insects.
- Helminthology: Study of worms.
- Herpetology: Study of reptiles and amphibians.
- Ichthyology: Study of fish.
- Lichenology: Study of lichens.
- Malacology: Study of snails.
- Mammology: Study of mammals.
- Microbiology: Study of micro-organisms.
- Mycology: Study of fungi.
- Nematology: Study of nematodes.
- Neuroscience: Study of Nervous system.
- Ophilogy: Study of snakes.
- Ornithology: Study of birds.
- Phycology: Study of algae.
- Protozoology: Study of protozoa.
- Saurology: Study of lizards.
- Virology: Study of viruses.
- Zoology: Study of animals.
Branches of Biology depending on the Parts of Body studied
Biology can be divided based on the organs studied. some of the branches of biology based on organs studied are as follows:
- Anatomy: Study of internal structures.
- Arthrology: Study of bone joints.
- Cardiology: Study of heart.
- Cell Biology/Cytology: Study of cell.
- Craniology: Study of skull.
- Dermatology: Study of skin.
- Endocrinology: Study of hormones.
- Genomics: Study of genome of an organism.
- Haematology: Study of blood and blood forming organs.
- Hepatology: Study of liver.
- Histology: Study of tissues.
- Immunology: Study of immune system.
- Integrative Biology: Study of whole organism.
- Karyology: Study of nucleus.
- Mastology: Study of mammary glands.
- Morphology: Study of form and structure of an organism.
- Nephrology: Study of kidney.
- Opthalmology: Study of eyes.
- Osteology: Study of bones.
- Serology: Study of blood.
Branches of Biology depending upon the processes studied
Biology can be broadly classified into different branches based on the processes occurring in the body.
- Biochemistry: Study of chemicals present in organisms.
- Ethology: Study of animal behavior.
- Genetics: Study of genes and heredity.
- Physiology: Study Study of life processes occurring in the body.
Branches of Biology in Relation to Other Subjects
Biology can be integrated with other subjects to broaden the aspect of life. Some of these are as follows:
- Bioinformatics: Study of information technology in relation to life sciences.
- Bioengineering: Study of living organisms in relation to engineering.
- Biogeography: Study of geographic distribution of living organisms.
- Biomathematics: Study of living organisms applying the concepts of mathematics.
- Biomechanics: Study of mechanics in living organisms.
- Bioclimatology: Study of the influence of changes in climate and weather on living organisms.
- Biotechnology: Study of application of living organisms for human welfare.
- Biophysics: Study of living beings applying the concepts of physics.
- Environmental Biology: Study of living organisms and their relation with environment.
- Psychobiology: Study of living organisms in relation to psychology.
Branches of Biology in Relation to Development of Organism
Development of an organism starts with one celled stage that later divide to form a fetus in case of multicellular organisms.
- Developmental Biology: Study of development of a living organism from zygote phase to a full organism.
- Embryology: Study of development of embryo and different stages.
- Oology: Study of eggs.
Branches of Biology Depending Upon Various Diseases
There are different branches of biology in relation to diseases. Some of these are as follows:
- Etiology: Study of causes of diseases.
- Epidemiology: Study of epidemic diseases.
- Gynaecology: Study of female related diseases.
- Pathology: Study of diseases and causative agents.
- Phytopathology: Study of diseases in plants.
Other Branches of Biology:
- Carcinomalogy: Study of cancer.
- Cryobiology: Study of life at very low temperature.
- Ecology: Study of distribution of organisms and their ecosystems.
- Enthology: Study of different human races.
- Eugenics: Study of improvement in humans by manipulating genetic composition.
- Evolution: Study of origin of life.
- Exobiology: Study of life on other planets than earth.
- Limnology: Study of fresh water.
- Marine Biology: Study of living organisms in oceans and ocean ecosystem.
- Molecular Biology: Study of biological functions at molecular level.
- Paleontology: Study of fossils.
- Parasitology: Study of parasites.
- Pharmacology: Study of action of chemicals on living organisms.
- Phylogenetics: Study of evolutionary relationships among living organisms.
- Synecology: Study of different community in environment.
- Taxonomy: Study of identification, naming and classifying living organisms.
There can be other branches of biology also that are not mentioned here. Hope you enjoyed the lesson and it helped you to understand biology more clearly.